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  • In English language every word is identified with a name.
  • It has its own function and position in a sentence.
  • It is a part of speech.
  • There are eight parts of speech in English language.
  1. Noun
  2. Pronoun
  3. Verb
  4. Adverb
  5. Adjective
  6. Preposition
  7. Conjunction
  8. Interjection


Name of a person, place or thing

  1. Chennai is a big city.
  2. Gandhi was a great leader.
  3. Ramu is a good boy.
  4. Mala is a clever girl.
  5. India is our country.
  6. Honesty is the best policy.


Noun is of different types.


  1. Proper Noun
  2. Common Noun
  3. Collective Noun
  4. Abstract Noun

Let us learn the above with examples.

Refers to a particular name, place, or thing.

    • Sita is a good girl.
    • India is our country.
    • Chennai is a big city.
    • Raghu came here.
    • I met Aravind.
    • Delhi is our capital.

A name common to persons or things of the same class or kind.

  • Menaka is a good girl.
  • Mumbai is a big city.
  • Solomon was a wise king.
  • Gandhi was a great leader.
  • Rose is a beautiful flower.

Name of a number of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole.

  • Our class has 50 pupils.
  • The crowd is very big.
  • Our team has 11 players.

It refers to a name of a quality, action or state.

Word derived from the Adjective

Word derived from the verb

  • swimming
  • laughter
  • reading
  • writing
  • movement
  • judgement
  • hatred

(word in noun form – word derived from another noun)

  • Childhood, motherhood
  • boyhood
  • youth
  • death
  • sickness


Word used instead of a noun
Personal Pronouns

  • Kamala is absent. He is ill.
  • Sita is a good girl. She always helps others.
  • India is our country. I love it.
  • We should respect elders. They guide us.
  • We love children. They are innocent.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS 🙁 can be used in four forms)


Object Possessive pronouns

Possessive form (adj. function)

I me mine my
We us ours our
you you  yours  your
He  him his his
She her hers her
It it its it
They them theirs  their
Let us learn personal pronouns: subject, object and possessive forms.
Read the examples and practise.

Understand and learn the usage of the personal pronouns with the following examples:

  1. I give you my pen.
    It was once mine.
    Now it is yours.
  2. You can give us your book.
    We can read its contents.
  3. She gave him her pencil.
    It was once hers.
    Now it is his.
  4. You have given us your paper.
    It was once yours.
    Now it is ours.
  5. We have given you our books.
    They will be very useful to you.
    Read them daily.
  6. He is her friend.
    He helps her.
    She helps him.
  7. He gives her his bag.
    They gave me a story book. Its cover was nice.
    I like it very much.
  8. I love children.
    They are good.
    I give them my plaything.
    They give their playthings to their friends.
  9. India is our nation.
    We are her children.
    I love her very much.
  10. They have given me a computer.
    It was once theirs.
    Now it is mine.
    I use it regularly.


Let us learn the usage of the different types of verbs.
Transitive verb,
Intransitive verb,
Gerund ,
Past participle,
Present participle.
Verb denotes action, possession or state


  • I drink coffee. (action)
  • She is reading a novel. (action)
  • You have written a letter (action)
  • They will come to school (action)
  • I have a pen (possession)
  • They had a book (possession)
  • She will have a bag (possession)
  • I am a student (state)
  • She is a teacher (state)
  • He will be a doctor (state)
  • They were present (state)
  • I was in the school (state)

VERB. (Three forms)

Let us understand, learn and practice.

Present Tense Past  Tense Past  participle
go went gone
come came come
play played played
see saw seen
jump jumped Jumped

Transitive verb


  • Verb takes an object.
  • Action passes over from the subject to some object.
  • This verb is used both in active and passive voice.


  1. He reads a novel. Subject + verb + object.
  2. She is writing a letter. Subject + verb + object.
  3. He has bought a book. Subject + verb + object.
  4. They can do the work. Subject + verb + object.
  5. We must obey the rules. Subject + verb + object.
  6. You should learn grammar. Subject + verb + object.

Let us understand ,learn and practise

Intransitive verb

Verb does not take an object.
Action does not pass over to an object.
It can not be used in passive voice.

He laughs.
She sleeps.
They come to school.
I sit on the chair.
They go to church every Sunday.

Let us understand, learn and practise


Verb is not limited by person and number.
It is used with the preposition ‘to’
which is used before the root form of the verb.
It may also be used without the preposition ‘to’.


  1. I like to sing.
  2. We want to play.
  3. You come to school to learn.
  4. We eat to live.
  5. To respect our teacher is our duty.
  6. I help him (to) study.
  7. They made him do the work.


Let us understand, learn and practice.

  • Derived from the verb.
  • Add – ‘ing’ with the present form of the verb.
    Write – ‘writing’.
    Read – ‘reading’.
  • It has the function of a noun.
  • It is called ‘verbal noun’.
  • It can be used as a subject and an object.


  1. Reading is my hobby.
  2. I love teaching.
  3. Learning grammar is a good practice.
  4. Swimming is a good exercise.
  5. Watching TV is her hobby.
  6. He likes travelling.
  7. They are ready for playing.


Let us understand ,learn and practise

  • ‘Past participle’ is used in the perfect tenses.
  • It is also used in the passive voice.
  • It is also used as a verbal adjective.


  1. I have bought a pen. (Past participle used in the Present Perfect tense)
  2. She had come to school. (Past participle used in the Past Perfect tense)
  3. They will have finished the work. ( Past participle used in the Future Perfect tense)
  4. The snake was killed. ( Past participle used in passive)
  5. The picture will be drawn. (passive)
  6. I found my lost pen . (verbal adjective)
  7. It is a damaged chair. (verbal adjective)
  8. He gave me a newly bought pen. (verbal adjective)


Let us understand, learn and practise

  • Add –‘ing’ with verb.
    Carry +‘ing’ – carrying
    Hear + ‘ing’ – hearing
  • It has (progressive) continuous verbal function .
  • It has the function of an adjective.
  • It qualifies noun.
  • It is a phrase.


  1. I saw a girl carrying a basket.
    Carry + ‘ing’ – carrying- qualifies the noun ‘girl’.
  2. Hearing a noise, I turned round.
  3. The weather being fine, I went out.
  4. They are playing football.( progressive verbal function)


Let us understand ,learn and practise

A word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective and another adverb
It answers the questions why, where, when, how.


  1. He ran fast . – This adverb adds some meaning to the verb. This answers the question “how”.
  2. I have heard this before. (when)
  3. He visited me again. (when)
  4. They came here. (where)
  5. We eat to live. (why)
  6. She walks slowly. (how)
  7. Sit down. (where)
  8. Come in. (where)
  9. Stand up. (where)
  10. Get out. (where)
  11. He walked away. (where)
  12. She finished her work quickly. (how)
  13. They played well. (How)
  14. He comes here daily .(when)
  15. Today the train arrived late. (when, how)
  16. I told you twice (how often)
  17. He is always busy. This adverb adds some meaning to the adjective “busy” and answers the question “ how often”.
  18. Rose is very beautiful (qualifies adj)
  19. She walks very slowly – The adverb “very” adds some meaning to the other adverb ”slowly” and answers the question “how”.
  20. It is highly attractive (qualifies adj)


(Let us master the usage of preposition by practice)

  • A word placed before a noun or a pronoun
  • It shows place, position, time or method.


  1. He came from school .
  2. She went to school.
  3. I live at west Mambalam in Chennai.
  4. They have lived in Chennai since 1995.
  5. We came across our friend.
  6. You went with your friends.
  7. I sat under a tree.
  8. She is sitting among her friends.
  9. We jumped into the well.
  10. He sat beside them.
  11. I came by bus.
  12. We worked till 5’o clock.
  13. He got up early in the morning.
  14. He ran through the town.
  15. They go to church on Sunday.
  16. He hid behind the door.
  17. I have been ill since Monday.
  18. They have lived here for ten days.


  • A word used to describe a noun
  • Used with a noun to add something to its meaning


  1. Chennai is a large city. ( Size)
  2. He is a good boy. ( Quality)
  3. She is a clever girl. ( Quality)
  4. She has some books. ( Number)
  5. I have much patience. (Quantity)
  6. She has five pencils. ( Number)
  7. All students must work hard. ( Number)
  8. Each boy has his chain. ( Number)
  9. Every student should obey the rule. ( Number)
  10. This book is mine. ( Demonstrative)
  11. Those girls are hard working. ( Demonstrative)
  12. Look at the blue sky. (Colour)


Let us understand , learn and practice.

Word used to join words or sentences :

  1. Menaka and Suja are sisters.
  2. He ran fast but missed the bus.
  3. She worked hard and got a prize.
  4. He was poor but he was honest.
  5. You must work hard or you would fail.
  6. When he came here, he met me.
  7. As/Since/Because/she was ill, she was absent.
  8. Though/Although/Even though/ they are rich, they do not help others.
  9. If you study well, you can pass.
  10. Unless you work hard, you cannot score a century.
  11. After he had finished his work, he went out.
  12. Before I came to school, my friends had arrived.
  13. Wait until/till I return.
  14. We use computers so that we can be smart in our work.
  15. Ram is taller than Sundar.


A word which expresses some sudden feeling


  • Oh! It is good.
  • Alas! She is dead.

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